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"The purpose of evaluation is to improve, not to prove"
Daniel L Stufflebeam


Bladder cancer: diagnosis and management - NICE

Bladder cancer is the 7th most common cancer in the UK and 3-4 times more common in men than women. The main risk factor is increasing age (majority people over 60 yrs) however smoking and exposure to industrial chemicals are also risk factors. Emergency admission is a common way for patients with bladder cancer to present, and is often associated with a poor prognosis.

"Until now there has been too much variation in survival from bladder cancer with women, the elderly and those from more deprived backgrounds having worse outcomes. These guidelines should help to reduce these variations."
Professor Julia Verne

This NICE guideline includes recommendations on:

  • managing high-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer
  • the use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for newly diagnosed muscle-invasive urothelial bladder cancer
  • radical therapy for muscle-invasive urothelial bladder cancer
  • information and support for people with bladder cancer tailored to each person's needs following a holistic needs assessment.

Source: Bladder cancer: diagnosis and management / NICE.  Feb 2015


Transforming patient safety: a systems approach

This report from the World Innovation Summit for Health (WISH) is intended to challenge the issue of patient safety "by identifying reasons for the on-going heartbreak of preventable harm in healthcare and offering solutions to bridge the gaps prevalent in today's approach."

"The goals of patient safety - to partner with patients, their loved ones, and all interested parties, to end preventable harm, continuously improve patient outcomes and experience, and eliminate waste in healthcare delivery - must be clearly articulated, designed throughout the healthcare sector, and woven into healthcare system operations. In this paper WISH relate the patient safety problem to other safety first industries and push for a sector-wide systematic approach.

Source: Transforming Patient Safety: a sector-wide systems approach / Peter J Pronovost, Alan D Ravitz, et al.  Report of the WISH Patient Safety Forum 2015.


Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: a review

This resource sheet defines fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and provides currently available estimates of their prevalence in the overall Australian population and in the Indigenous population. It reviews the Australian and international literature published since 1990 on the effectiveness of programs that aim to prevent FASD or to alleviate its effects. Evidence on the effectiveness of Australian and Indigenous specific programs is also assessed, including those programs that have been developed and implemented in partnership with Indigenous Australians.

Source: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: a review of interventions for prevention and management in Indigenous communities / AIFS. Feb 2015


Knowing when to stop antibiotic therapy

The author argues that "empiric antibiotic therapy that turns out to be unnecessary can (and should) be stopped immediately." Her conclusion is backed by two key arguments: that it improves our antibiotic use and that it reduces the risk of developing antimicrobial resistance. Following 50 years of widespread use, experts label antimicrobial resistance a threat to global security and predict a "post-antibiotic" era.

Source: Medical Journal of Australia. 2015; 202(3):121-2.


Tobacco smoking and all-cause mortality - Australian study

In Australia 2/3 deaths in current smokers can be attributed to smoking and on average they will die 10 years earlier than non-smokers. The study provides the first large-scale direct evidence on the relationship of smoking to mortality in Australia. The national prevalence of smoking in Australia has fallen rapidly and is now among the lowest in the world, with an estimated 13% of adults smoking daily. The data indicates that, in a low prevalence setting, the risks of continuing to smoke and the benefits of cessation remain high.

Source: BMC medicine 2015; 13(38)


eBook spotlight

Transplantation of the liver / edited by Ronald W. Busuttil and Goran B.G. Klintmalm. 3rd ed. Saunders Elsevier, 2015.
In this 3rd edition the expanded topics include: the use of death after cardiac donation (DCD) grafts; liver transplantation for the treatment of cholangiocarcinoma; management of portopulmonary hypertension; an expanded analysis of the use of extended criteria donors; extracorporeal resuscitation of grafts; combined liver-kidney and multiorgan transplantation; management of the HCV epidemic; and discussion of the current treatment of antibody-mediated rejection of liver grafts, which was not considered a major problem before.

Sleisenger and Fordtran's gastrointestinal and liver disease : pathophysiology diagnosis, management / edited by Mark Feldman, Lawrence S. Friedman and Lawrence J. Brandt. 10th ed. Saunders Elsevier, 2016.
This 10th edition is a premier textbook and is useful to medical residents, gastroenterology fellows, and gastroenterologists. Some of the new chapters include up-to-date discussions of enteric microbiota, probiotics and fecal transplantation, and factitious gastrointestinal diseases. An outstanding feature of the textbook is the clarity and detail of the tables and the high quality of the photomicrographs.


Print books

Defining music therapy / Kenneth E. Bruscia. Barcelona Publisers, 2014.

Person and family centered care / Jane H. Barnsteiner, Joanne Disch, Mary K. Walton. Sigma Theta Tau International, 2014.


Journal spotlight

These links provide access to the current issue:

American journal of medicine

Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation


International journal of angiology

JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association

JOGNN: Journal of obstetric, gynecologic, and neonatal nursing

Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry

Journal of vascular and interventional radiology

NEJM: New England journal of medicine


Looking for the latest journal issues?
All our journal titles with electronic access are available via the A-Z Journal List
(outside the Austin Health network use your Library barcode no. & PIN for access)

If you require an article from a journal that is not on the A-Z Journal List, please use our online document delivery form.

Journals received in print-only format this week:

Journal of reproductive medicine. Vol. 60, no. 1-2, January-February 2015.

Nature. Vol. 518, no. 7537, 5 February 2015.

Practicing midwife. Vol. 18, no. 2 February 2015.


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